Our companion translation of Luka Jelic's 1891 work, L vangelisation de l?Am rique avant de Christophe Columbe and other resources
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Discovery of America by the Norse in the 10th CenturyGabriel Gravier (1827-1904) was a well-known French cartographer, geographer, and historian who wrote D'couverte de Am rique par les Normands au Xe S cle in 1874, which has never before been translated into English. We became interested in Gravier when we translated and presented Luka Jelic's 1891 work, L vangelisation de Am rique avant de Christophe Columbe, since Jelic referred constantly to Gravier in his footnotes.
Why should we bother translating a 137-year-old book by a 19th-century writer who didn't have today's tools for filling in historical gaps and who got many things wrong? We do so because, in the 19th century, writers like Gravier and Jelic footnoted everything, and some of their footnotes point backward again, and again, and again - sometimes reaching true primary sources written by people who lived at the time we study, saw the action and reported it. Gravier, for example, pointed the way for Luka Jelic, who went further back to the Vatican Archives, material written by people who had administered the Church in the Middle Ages. ?Dirt? archaeology (yielding artifacts and dirty knees) should always be paired with dust archaeology (dusty books yielding facts and sneezes).
To facilitate the reading of Gravier, use the Table of Contents links below. We?ve also brought together much information on his sources, words, geographic locations, and concepts in our footnotes at the end of each chapter, noted by a bracketed number, i.e. .
To see the Google Books version of Gravier's original publication, click here: D-couverte de l' Am'rique par les Normands au Xe si cle.
TITLE PAGE and DEDICATION
Gravier's TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART ONE - ROAD TO AMERICA
Chapter I : A GLANCE AT THE MARITIME GENIUS OF THE NORSE
Chapter II : FIRST EXCURSIONS OF THE NORSE
Chapter III : DISCOVERY OF ICELAND
Chapter IV : DISCOVERY OF GREENLAND
Chapter V ? BJARN HERJULFSON
PART TWO - THE CHILDREN OF ERIK THE RED
Chapter I : LEIF THE LUCKY
Chapter II : THORVALD?S EXPEDITION
Chapter III : THORSTEIN?S ATTEMPT
PART THREE - THORFINN KARLSEFNI AND GUDRID
Chapter I : STRAUMFORD
Chapter II : THORFINNSBUDIR
Chapter III : DIGHTON WRITING-ROCK
Chapter IV : RETURN TO STRAUMFORD
Chapter V : FREYDA
Chapter VI : Ship carried by storm from the coast of Markland to the coast of Iceland...
PART FOUR: SOUTHERN EXCURSIONS
Chapter I : ARI MARSON
Chapter II : BJORN ASBRANDSON BREIDVIKAKAPPI
Chapter III : HERVADOR
Chapter IV : MADOC AP OWEN
PART FIVE -NORTHERN EXCURSIONS.
Chapter I ? The Norse extend their settlements as far as Disco Bay
Chapter II ? Excursion of three Greenlandic priests.
Chapter III ? Icelandic priests take refuge in the New World....
PART SIX - CHRISTIAN PREACHING IN AMERICA
Chapter I ? ERIK-UPSI
Chapter II ? America and Greenland pay the tithe and Peter?s Pence.
PART SEVEN : NEW DISCOVERY OF AMERICA AT THE END OF THE 14th CENTURY....
[Translation of Historia del Almirante (History of the Admiral) by Hernan Colon referenced in this section.]
PART EIGHT - DECLINE AND COLLAPSE OF NORSE COLONIES IN AMERICA
Chapter I - COLLAPSE
Chapter II - PIRATES
PART NINE : ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROOFS OF NORSE SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA....