Our companion translation of Luka Jelic?s 1891 work, L?Évangelisation de l?Amérique avant de Christophe Columbe and other resources     see full story >>

Discovery of America by the Norse in the 10th Century

Gabriel Gravier (1827-1904) was a well-known French cartographer, geographer, and historian who wrote Découverte de l?Amérique par les Normands au Xe Siècle in 1874, which has never before been translated into English. We became interested in Gravier when we translated and presented Luka Jelic?s 1891 work, L?Évangelisation de l?Amérique avant de Christophe Columbe, since Jelic referred constantly to Gravier in his footnotes.

Why should we bother translating a 137-year-old book by a 19th-century writer who didn?t have today?s tools for filling in historical gaps and who got many things wrong? We do so because, in the 19th century, writers like Gravier and Jelic footnoted everything, and some of their footnotes point backward again, and again, and again - sometimes reaching true primary sources written by people who lived at the time we study, saw the action and reported it. Gravier, for example, pointed the way for Luka Jelic, who went further back to the Vatican Archives, material written by people who had administered the Church in the Middle Ages. ?Dirt? archaeology (yielding artifacts and dirty knees) should always be paired with ?dust? archaeology (dusty books yielding facts and sneezes).

To facilitate the reading of Gravier, use the Table of Contents links below. We?ve also brought together much information on his sources, words, geographic locations, and concepts in our footnotes at the end of each chapter, noted by a bracketed number, i.e. [1].

To see the Google Books version of Gravier's original publication, click here: Découverte de l'Amérique par les Normands au Xe siècle.

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TRANSLATOR'S INTRODUCTION

TITLE PAGE and DEDICATION

Gravier's TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

PART ONE  ?  ROAD TO AMERICA
      Chapter I ? A GLANCE AT THE MARITIME GENIUS OF THE NORSE
     Chapter II ? FIRST EXCURSIONS OF THE NORSE
     Chapter III ? DISCOVERY OF ICELAND
     Chapter IV ? DISCOVERY OF GREENLAND
     Chapter V ? BJARN HERJULFSON

PART TWO  ?  THE CHILDREN OF ERIK THE RED
     Chapter I ? LEIF THE LUCKY
     Chapter II ? THORVALD?S EXPEDITION
     Chapter III ? THORSTEIN?S ATTEMPT

PART THREE  ?  THORFINN KARLSEFNI AND GUDRID
     Chapter I ? STRAUMFORD
     Chapter II ? THORFINNSBUDIR
     Chapter III ? DIGHTON WRITING-ROCK
     Chapter IV ? RETURN TO STRAUMFORD
     Chapter V ? FREYDA
     Chapter VI ? Ship carried by storm from the coast of Markland to the coast of Iceland...

PART FOUR  ?  SOUTHERN EXCURSIONS
     Chapter I ? ARI MARSON
     Chapter II ? BJORN ASBRANDSON BREIDVIKAKAPPI
     Chapter III ? HERVADOR
     Chapter IV ? MADOC AP OWEN

PART FIVE  ?  NORTHERN EXCURSIONS.
     Chapter I ? The Norse extend their settlements as far as Disco Bay
     Chapter II ? Excursion of three Greenlandic priests.
     Chapter III ? Icelandic priests take refuge in the New World....

PART SIX  ?  CHRISTIAN PREACHING IN AMERICA
      Chapter I ? ERIK-UPSI
     Chapter II ? America and Greenland pay the tithe and Peter?s Pence.

PART SEVEN  ?  NEW DISCOVERY OF AMERICA AT THE END OF THE 14th CENTURY....
      [Translation of Historia del Almirante (History of the Admiral) by Hernan Colon referenced in this section.]

PART EIGHT  ?  DECLINE AND COLLAPSE OF NORSE COLONIES IN AMERICA
     Chapter I ? COLLAPSE
     Chapter II ? PIRATES

PART NINE  ?  ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROOFS OF NORSE SETTLEMENT IN AMERICA....



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